Hybrid materials and coatings for tissue bioengineering

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Application

Development and improvement of hybrid methods of formation of biomimetic materials and coatings for tissue bioengineering. Such materials can be successfully applied in various strategies of tissue engineering: tissue engineering with the use of pharmaceuticals, cells, growth factors; tissue engineering in a bioreactor; tissue engineering in a donor bed. 

Current stage

  • The technologies for formation of thin calcium-phosphate coatings using vacuum ion-plasma methods have been developed.
  • The technologies for formation of multilayer coatings consisting of an oxide sublayer and a bioactive calcium-phosphate coating have been developed.
  • A composite material on the basis of fluorocarbon plastics with high porosity and elasticity has been developed.
  • The technology of integration of a composite material with a metal armature has been developed.
  • Technological modes for surface modification of composite materials using the vacuum ion-plasma method have been mastered.
  • The technology for formation of multi-layer coatings on the surface of stainless steel and ceramics on the basis of the original ion-plasma method of deposition of valve-group materials with the subsequent microarc oxidation has been developed.

Summary

The tactics of comprehensive patient treatment should consider the ways to improve long-term outcomes (reduction of disability, rehabilitation, and quality of life). For this purpose, a variety of medical technologies with the use of various implants are applied in patient treatment. Most modern implants are made of metals with good biomechanical characteristics. The technology of production and processing of such metals is mastered. Metal implants provide reliable fixation of injured bones. However, application of such medical devices cannot provide fundamental improvement in treatment of injuries of the musculoskeletal system. This requires a purposeful influence on the reparative osteogenesis process, which can be achieved using osteoplastic materials which, primarily, include calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as well as various growth factors (bone morphogenic protein, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor, platelet factor, insulin-like factors, etc.). Such mechanical properties of calcium-phosphate (CP) materials as high friability and low wear-resistance do not allow using them as load-bearing biomaterials. Weak mechanical properties are particularly peculiar to highly-porous CP ceramics. On the other hand, the presence of pores with dimensions greater than 100 micrometers is considered as a prerequisite for sprouting of blood vessels and bone cells. Furthermore, the mechanical strength of an implant and the bone tissue ingrowth should remain unchanged during the entire process of regeneration.

Single-phase biomaterials are unable to provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcified tissues, and, therefore, there is a great need in development of multi-phase biomaterials with the structure and the composition imitating natural bones. Such materials fall into the hybrid section and they are produced by combining chemically diverse components. In order to combine positive properties of the components of the hybrid system it is necessary to integrate their components into one material. Hybrid materials include composite materials, multilayer systems, particles, surface-modified fibers, which gives them special properties, for example hydrophobic/hydrophilic. This direction has become the main way to improve physicochemical properties and technical characteristics of various materials, including materials for medical purposes.